The Heinkel He 111 

Germany
Germany

side view front view under view

The Heinkel He 111 is most known for it's role during the Battle of Britain. It was the main Bomber of the Luftwaffe, and as such bore the brunt of the attacks on the RAF Fighter Command airfields.
The Heinkel He 111 started it's development in a time (1934) when the Luftwaffe was still a secret organisation as a result of World War I. The design had to be presented as a passenger and/or mail plane.
The He 111 was designed by 2 twin brothers, Siegfried and Walter Günter, and was based on the Heinkel He 70 Blitz. Several prototypes were developed in the first phase, Heinkel He111a through He 111d, or (in military terms) Heinkel He 111 V1 through V4. The last two were definitely military aimed, with defensive armament and a weapons bay. The V3 was presented to the public later, without the three defensive machineguns, and the weapons bay explained a s being a four person 'smoking compartment'.
Because of the speed and handling the aircraft was well received. For the military it meant that the He 111 would probably an excellent medium bomber with good handling, and performance above that of most contemporary fighters.

Versions:

Further pictures:

Heinkel He 111B in full (test-)flight. Notice the stepped cockpit
Heinkel He 111B in full (test-)flight. Notice the stepped cockpit

Heinkel He 111H in full flight. This version had the fully glazed nose
Heinkel He 111H in full flight. This version had the fully glazed nose

 

Technical data on the Heinkel He 111B-2
Powerplant 2 × Daimler-Benz DB 600 CG inverted Vee, rated at 950 hp (708.22 kW) each Role during war
  • Medium Bomber
  • Torpedo Bomber
  • Anti-shipping Aircraft
Length 57 ft 5 inch Height 14 ft 5.25 inch
Empty weight 12875 lb Operational weight 18960 lb typical,
22046 lb max
Wing Span 74 ft 1.75 inch Wing Aspect ratio 5.83
Wing Area 942.92 sq ft Service ceiling 22965 ft
Maximum speed 230 mph at 13125 ft Cruising speed 214 mph at 13125 ft
Initial climb rate unknown Range 1030 miles typical,
565 miles max
Fuel capacity internal unknown Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns 3 × 0.312 inch MG 15 in the following 3 positions:
  • trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • trainable rearward-firing dorsal
  • retractable trainable rearward-firing ventral
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 3,307 lb in 8 lower fuselage cells, rated 551 lb each. General load-out was:
  • 6 × 551 lb SC-250 bombs, or
  • 8 × 220 lb SC-100 bombs
Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 4: pilot, navigator/bombardier/gunner, radio operator/gunner, gunner Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 24 Februari 1935 Operational Service 1936 - late 1950's
Manufacturer Ernst Heinkel A.G. Number produced 7.300+ total, 300+ He 111B's
Metric system
Length 17.5 m Height 4.4 m
Empty weight 5840 kg Operational weight 8600 kg typical,
10000 kg max
Wing Span 22.6 m Wing Aspect ratio 5.83
Wing Area 87.6 m² Service ceiling 7000 m
Maximum speed 370 km/h at 4000 m Cruising speed 344 km/h at 4000 m
Initial climb rate unknown Range 1658 km typical,
909 km max
Fuel capacity internal unknown Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns 3 × 7,92 mm MG 15 in the following 3 positions:
  • trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • trainable rearward-firing dorsal
  • retractable trainable rearward-firing ventral
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 1.500 kg in 8 lower fuselage cells, rated 250 kg each. General load-out was:
  • 6 × 250 kg SC-250 bombs, or
  • 8 × 100 kg SC-100 bombs
Torpedoes/rockets -

Technical data on the Heinkel He 111H-16
Powerplant 2 × Junkers Jumo 211F-2 inverted Vee, rated at 1350 hp (1006.41 kW) each Role during war
  • Medium Bomber
  • Torpedo Bomber
  • Anti-shipping Aircraft
Length 53 ft 9.5 inch Height 13 ft 1.5 inch
Empty weight 19136 lb Operational weight 30865 lb max
Wing Span 74 ft 1.75 inch Wing Aspect ratio 5.9
Wing Area 931.07 sq ft Service ceiling 27890 ft
Maximum speed 252 mph at 19685 ft Cruising speed 230 mph at 6560 ft
Initial climb rate Climb to 13,125 ft in 23 min 30 sec Range 1199 miles typical,
1740 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 1,265 Imp gal (1,519 US gal) Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the nose (optional)
  • 1 × 0.51 inch trainable rearward-firing in the dorsal position, 1,000 rounds
  • 2 × 0.312 inch MG 81 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral gondola, 1,000 rounds each
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 or MG 81 trainable lateral-firing, 1,000 rounds, or
  • 2 × 0.312 inch MG 81 trainable lateral-firing in each of the beam positions, 500 rounds each
Cannons 1 × 20 mm MG FF trainable forward firing in the nose, 180 rounds
Bomb load Up to 5,511 lb carried in a weapons bay rated at 4,409 lb, and 2 underwing hardpoints, the one rated at 4,409 lb, the other at 1,102 lb. General load-out was:
  • 8 × 551 lb SC-250 bombs or 32 × 110 lb SC-50 bombs internal, or
  • 16 × 110 lb SC-50 bombs internal and 1 × 2,205 lb SC-1000 bomb external, or
  • 1 × 4,409 lb SC-2000 bomb and 1 × 1,102 lb SC-500 bomb both external
Torpedoes/rockets 2 × Henschel Hs 293A air-to-surface missiles (He 111H-12) in stead of ventral gondola and other disposables
Crew 5: pilot, co-pilot, bombardier/gunner, radio operator/gunner, gunner Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 24 Februari 1935 Operational Service 1936 - late 1950's
Manufacturer Ernst Heinkel A.G. Number produced 7.300+ total, 6.200 He 111H's
Metric system
Length 16.4 m Height 4 m
Empty weight 8680 kg Operational weight 14000 kg max
Wing Span 22.6 m Wing Aspect ratio 5.9
Wing Area 86.5 m² Service ceiling 8501 m
Maximum speed 406 km/h at 6000 m Cruising speed 370 km/h at 1999 m
Initial climb rate Climb to 4.000 m in 23 min 30 sec Range 1930 km typical,
2800 km max
Fuel capacity internal 5750 liters Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the nose (optional)
  • 1 × 13 mm trainable rearward-firing in the dorsal position, 1.000 rounds
  • 2 × 7,92 mm MG 81 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral gondola, 1.000 rounds each
  • 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 or MG 81 trainable lateral-firing, 1.000 rounds, or
  • 2 × 7,92 mm MG 81 trainable lateral-firing in each of the beam positions, 500 rounds each
Cannons 1 × 20 mm MG FF trainable forward firing in the nose, 180 rounds
Bomb load Up to 2.500 kg carried in a weapons bay rated at 2.000 kg, and 2 underwing hardpoints, the one rated at 2.000 kg, the other at 500 kg. General load-out was:
  • 8 × 250 kg SC-250 bombs or 32 × 50 kg SC-50 bombs internal, or
  • 16 × 50 kg SC-50 bombs internal and 1 × 1.000 kg SC-1000 bomb external, or
  • 1 × 2.000 kg SC-2000 bomb and 1 × 500 kg SC-500 bomb both external
Torpedoes/rockets 2 × Henschel Hs 293A air-to-surface missiles (He 111H-12) in stead of ventral gondola and other disposables

Technical data on the Heinkel He 111P-4
Powerplant 2 × Daimler Benz DB 601A-1 inverted-Vee, rated at 1100 hp (820.04 kW) each Role during war
Length 53 ft 9.5 inch Height 13 ft 1.5 inch
Empty weight 17670 lb Operational weight 29762 lb max
Wing Span 74 ft 1.75 inch Wing Aspect ratio 5.9
Wing Area 931.07 sq ft Service ceiling 26250 ft
Maximum speed 247 mph at 16405 ft Cruising speed 232 mph at 16405 ft
Initial climb rate Climb to 14,765 ft in 31 min 18 sec Range 1491 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 946 Imp gal (1,136 US gal) Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 fixed forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the dorsal position, 1,000 rounds
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral gondola, 1,000 rounds
  • 2 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable lateral-firing, 1,000 rounds
  • provision for 1 × 0.312 inch MG 17 fixed rearward--firing in the tailcone
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 4,409 lb carried in a weapons bay rated at 2,205 lb and on 2 underwing hardpoints rated at 1,102 lb. General load consists of:
  • 4 × 551 lb SC-250 bombs internal
  • 1 or 2 × 1,102 lb SC-500 bombs external
Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 5: pilot, co-pilot, bombardier/gunner, radio operator/gunner, gunner Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 24 Februari 1935 Operational Service 1936 - late 1950's
Manufacturer Ernst Heinkel A.G. Number produced 7.300+ total, 400 He 111P's
Metric system
Length 16.4 m Height 4 m
Empty weight 8015 kg Operational weight 13500 kg max
Wing Span 22.6 m Wing Aspect ratio 5.9
Wing Area 86.5 m² Service ceiling 8001 m
Maximum speed 397 km/h at 5000 m Cruising speed 373 km/h at 5000 m
Initial climb rate Climb to 4.500 m in 31 min 18 sec Range 2399 km max
Fuel capacity internal 4.300 liters Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 fixed forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the dorsal position, 1,000 rounds
  • 1 × 7,92 mm MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral gondola, 1,000 rounds
  • 2 × 7,92 mm MG 15 trainable lateral-firing, 1,000 rounds
  • provision for 1 × 7,92 mm MG 17 fixed rearward--firing in the tailcone
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 2.000 kg carried in a weapons bay rated at 1.000 kg and on 2 underwing hardpoints rated at 500 kg. General load consists of:
  • 4 × 250 kg SC-250 bombs internal
  • 1 or 2 × 500 kg SC-500 bombs external
Torpedoes/rockets -

Here is a quick overview of all different versions, without the full technical specifications:

Different versions of the Heinkel He 111 
Heinkel He 111A-0 Pre-production batch of 10 aircraft, to enable the military to evaluate it's characteristics and performance. They were powered by 2 × BMW VI 6,0 Z Vee, rated at 660 hp (492 kW) each. Because of the addition of all military equipment, and the hence added weight and drag, the performance turned out to be disappointing. Handling was still good, but the max level speed dropped to 193 Mph (310 km/h) with the ventral machinegun installation retracted.. The secret Luftwaffe refused to accept them, and all aircraft were sold to China, and shipped to Canton.
Number built: 10
Heinkel He 111B-0 The problem of the he 111A-0 was clearly lack of power. To solve the problem, all that was needed was a more potent powerplant. The solution was found in the Daimler-Benz DB 600 inverted-Vee, which could generate a power of 950 hp (708 kW), resulting in drastically higher speeds.
Number built: unknown out of a total of 300+ He 111B's
Heinkel He 111B-1 This version was powered by 2 × Daimler Benz DB 600Aa, rated at 1,000 hp (746 kW) at first, but later switched to the Daimler Benz DB 600C, rated at 880 hp (656 kW). Although this meant that the performance suffered, the operational range increased greatly. Also, the max weapons load was 3,307 lb (1.500 kg).
This version was the first Heinkel He 111 aircraft that saw action, for it was tested operationally during the Spanish Civil war. Here lies one of the factors why the He 111's defensive armament was inadequate during the Battle of Britain: the bomber was faster than most of the opposing fighters, so it seldomly needed the guns to protect itself.
Number built: unknown out of a total of 300+ He 111B's
Heinkel He 111B-2 For details see above. The only difference with the He 111B-1 was the powerplant.
Number built: unknown out of a total of 300+ He 111B's
Heinkel He 111C Civil aircraft
Number built: 5
Heinkel He 111D-1 test aircraft, initially powered by 2 × Daimler Benz DB 600Ga engines. These engines had an improved cooling system, eliminating the need for supplementary surface radiators like used on the He 111B versions.
Number built: unknown
Heinkel He 111E-0 The demand on the DB 600 engine was greater than the number produced, so an alternative had to be found. The prototype for the He 111E version was the V6, a He 111B powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 210Ga inverted-Vee. These were adequate in technical aspects, but lacked the power that was needed. So the V6 was refitted with 2 × Junkers Jumo 211A-1 inverted-Vee, rated at 1,000 hp (746 kW) each. Then the prototype V10 was a He 111D fitted with the same engine. This stood model for the He 111E-0. The max weapons load was increased to 3,748 lb (1.700 kg)
Number built: unknown out of a total of 190+ He 111E's
Heinkel He 111E-1 This version was similar to the He 111E-0. It had a max weapons-load of 4,409 lb (2.000 kg). The He 111E-1 also saw action in Spain and performed very well too. In 1939 the German government gave the surviving 58 He 111B's and He 111E's to the Spanish government, which operated them until the 1950's.
Number built: unknown out of a total of 190+ He 111E's
Heinkel He 111E-3 Based on the He 111E-1, but with different equipment. This was the subvariant produced in the biggest numbers, and it differed from the He 111B-2 with respect to: typical weight of 21,153 lb (9.595 kg), max weight of 23,405 lb (10.615 kg), max level speed of 261 Mph (420 km/h) at 13,125 ft (4.000 m) altitude, max cruising speed of 237 Mph (380 km/h) at 13,125 ft (4.000 m), typical range of 932 miles (1.500 km) with a weapons load of 2,205 lb (1.000 kg), and a service ceiling of 23,620 ft (7.200 m)
Number built: unknown out of a total of 190+ He 111E's
Heinkel He 111E-4 Based on the He 111E-1, but with different ways to load the boms. This version had the same weapons-load, but half of it was internal, half of it external.
Number built: unknown out of a total of 190+ He 111E's
Heinkel He 111E-5 based on the He 111-4, but with an auxiliary tank in the fuselage for an extra 183.5 Imp gal (220.6 US gal, 835 liters) of fuel.
Number built: unknown out of a total of 190+ He 111E's
Heinkel He 111F-0 It was felt by the Heinkel design team that the wing could be simpler in construction by changing it's structure and eliminating the eliptical shapes of the leading and trailing edges. It was first flown on a converted He 111B-0, known as the V7, and was immediately adopted for the Heinkel He 111G civil transport. Because the German air ministry was unwilling to accept any delays in the production of the bomber, the first military prototype with this wing, the V11 based on a Heinkel He 111B-1, was first flown in the summer of 1937 (1 year later).
the Heinkel He 111F-0 pre-production model was similar to the He 111E-5, but had the new wing, and was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211A-3, rated at 1,100 hp (820 kW). This meant that the new bomber had a range of 1,131 miles (1.820 km) with a starting weight of 24,250 lb (11.000 kg)
Number built: 6
Heinkel He 111F-1 Version built for the Turkish airforce
Number built: 24
Heinkel He 111F-4 Version built for the Luftwaffe
Number built: 40
Heinkel He 111G Civil model
Number built: unknown
Heinkel He 111J-0 Pre-production version of the He 111J version. Because the production of the Daimler Benz DB 600 engine had stepped up several paces, there were enough engines to promt the German air ministry to ask Heinkel for a DB 600 powered version once more. The result was a He 111F-4 powered by 2 × Daimler Benz DB 600CG. As it was intended for the torpedo-bomber role where the torpedo would be carried outside, all internal bomb equipment were removed.
Number built: unknown
Heinkel He 111J-1 Production version of the He 111J-0. The German air ministry had changed it's mind and wanted the bomber for conventional bombings in stead. Thus these variants had the same bombing equipment as the He 111F-4.
By the time the war broke out (World War 2), most of the older -B, -E, -F, -G and -J versions had been withdrawn from first-line service, and were used for transports and trainer roles. A number of these aircraft saw action in the Polish and Norwegian campaigns.
Number built: 90
Heinkel He 111H-0 The He 111H version was drastically redesigned with respect to the airframe, and especially the cockpit area. The stepped cockpit was done away with, and instead a fully glazed nose was installed.
The prototype for this version, the most numerous in the Heinkel He 111 series, was the He 111 V19 which flew in Januari 1939. The He 111H was based upon the Heinkel He 111P version, see below and above for more details. The He 111H-0 was the pre-production version, powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211A-1, rated at 1,010 hp (753 kW) each. Like it's predecessors, it was armed by 3 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 guns, 1 each in the nose, dorsal and ventral position.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-1 Identical to the He 111H-0, but produced in much larger numbers. Between May and September 1939 some 400 had been built, about half of the total number of He 111's at the start of World War 2.
Number built: about 400 out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-2 Just as the hostilities started, this version was introduced. It was an improved version of the He 111H-1, powered with 2 × Junkers Jumo 211A-3, rated at 1,100 hp (820 kW) each. Shortly after the first aircraft were delivered, was the defensive armament doubled to 6 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 guns, 2 each in the nose, dorsal and ventral positions.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-3 Introduced in November 1939, this was an improved He 111H-2 version. The version was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211D-1, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW) each. Armament was increased with a 20 mm MG FF trainable forward-firing cannon in the ventral position. The weapons bay was adopted to carry a max load of 4,409 lb (2.000 kg) of bombs or a smaller amount plus an auxiliary fuel tank. This version was also intended to fullfill the anti-shipping role.
A number of these aircraft were furthermore delivered to Rumania. The Rumanians were so pleased about their Heinkels that they made a deal to build it under license by the Fabrica de Avione SET. It is not known by me if they actually built any aircraft.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-4 This version was based on the He 111H-3, initially with the same powerplant. Later the engines were replaced by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211F-1, rated at 1,400 hp (1.044 kW) each. The main difference however was the revised disposable armament capability. The port side of the weapons bay was blanked off and adopted/strengthened to be able to carry 2 × 2,205 lb (1.000 kg) SC/PD-1000 bombs or 1 × 3,968 lb (1.800 kg) SC/PD-1800 bomb.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-5 This version was powered again by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211D-1. Porvions were made such that both halves of the weapons bay could carry an auxiliary fuel tank, and the disposable armament was limited to 5,511 lb (2.500 kg). These could be carried on 2 external hardpoints. The max take-off weight of the He 111H-5 was 30,985 lb (14.055 kg)
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-6 This version incorporated all gradual improvements of the He 111H-4 and He 111H-5 versions. It was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211F-1, and armed with 1 × 20 mm MG FF cannon and 6 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) guns. In some aircraft an additional remotely controlled 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 17 fixed rearward-firing gun was installed in the tailcone. Additionally, provisions under the fuselage were made to carry 2 × 1,686 lb (765 kg) air-launched LT F5b torpedoes.
The failure of the Heinkel He 177 Greif heavy bomber and Junkers Ju 288 medium bomber meant that the Heinkel He 111 stayed in production much longer than initially planned.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-7 Identical to the He 111H-6, except some minor equipment changes.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-8 A version based on the He-111H-6, converted form the He 111H-3 and He 111H-5. This aircraft had a balloon cable fender/cutter situated in front of the nose. The contraption weighed some 551 lb (250 kg), and to preserve the center of gravity a counter weight was placed in the tail. This extra weight and the construction affected performance and weapon load, so it was quickly relegated to be used as a glider tug with the following Rüstsatz:

Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

He 111H8/R2 Provisions to be used as a glider tug
Number converted: 30


Number converted: 30
Heinkel He 111H-9 Identical to the He 111H-6, except some minor equipment changes.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-10 Based on the He 111H-6, this version was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211F-2. It had balloon cable cutting devices in the wing leading edges, and the forward firing 20 mm MG FF cannon and 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 gun were switched from place. The 20 mm MG FF thus ended up in the nose, whereas the 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 ended up in the ventral gondola.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-11 This version was essentially a He 111H-10, with improvements to crew protection and armament. The dorsal position became fully enclosed with toughened glass, and the 1 ×0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 was replaced by 1 × 0.51 inch (13 mm) MG 131. Further more was the ventral 1 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 gun replaced by 2 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 81 guns. Jettisonable armor plates were added at certain vulnerable places, and provisions were made by adding a carrier plate under the fuselage to carry 5 × 551 lb (250 kg) SC-250 bombs.
By now the aircraft was showing it's obsolescent design, and a number of field conversions were made to prolong it's life:

Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

He 111H-11/R1 2 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 trainable lateral firing guns were replaced by 2 × two-barrel (4 guns total) 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 81z
He 111H-11/R2 Provisions for the He 111H-11 to act as a glider tug.


Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-12 This version appeared early 1943, and had it's ventral gondola removed. In stead it was planned to carry 2 × Henschel Hs 293A air-to-surface missiles. This missle type was operated by radio, whose operator was positioned in the nose. The transmitter of the missile was the FuG 203b Kehl III, which was fitted in the dorsal gun position. Once launched, the missile could thus be directed by radio impulses. It is doubted whether these aircraft, of which only a few were produced anyway, were used operationally.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-14 This was a pathfinder, based on the He 111H-10. It had specialised radio equipment for scouting duties over the eastern Atlantic Ocean, to aid anti-shipping operations. One Rüstsatz was used:

Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

He 111H-14/R2 Specialised radio equipment was removed, and a glider-tug attachment added. These airaft were subsequently sent to the Eastern Front
Number converted: 20


Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-16 Together with the He 111H-3 and He 111H-6, the He 111H-16 was the standard model in the He 111H series. It was based on the he 111H-6, and powered by 2 × Junkers jumo 211F-2. It incorporated a number of changes introduced gradually in earlier versions. The armor and defensive armament were equal to the he 111H-11, but the arrangement of disposables differed. It also had provisions for 3 Rüstsätze:

Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

He 111H-16/R1 This variant had an electrically operated dorsal turret with 1 × 0.51 inch (13 mm) MG 131 gun
He 111H-16/R2 This variant had a boom-like towing attachment
He 111H-16/R3 Fitted with additional armor and reduced weapon load to operate as a pathfinder


Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-18 This version was meant for nightly pathfinder duties, and was based as such on the He 111H-16/R3, but with the special radio equipment of the He 114H-14
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-20 It became clear that the He 111H was not only used as a bomber, but often as well as a transport/freighter. For efficiency reasons a specific transport/freighter versions was designed, the He 111H-20. To accomodota a number of roles, it could be fitted with 4 types of Rüstsätze:

Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

He 111H-20/R1 3-crew paratrooper transport for 16 troopers, who could egress the aircraft via a ventral hatch. Additionally it could externally carry 2 supply containers, 1,764 lb (800 kg) each
He 111H-20/R2 This was a freighter and glider tug, crewwed with 5 people including a gunner for the electrically operated dorsal turret fitted with 1 × 0.51 inch (13 mm) MG 131 like the He 111H-16/R1
He 111H-20/R3 Night bomber able to carry a external disposables load of 4,409 lb (2000 kg) (externally), and defended by 3 × 0.51 inch (13 mm) MG 131 guns in the nose, dorsal and ventral position. Additionally it was fitted with 2 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 81z trainable two-barrel guns in the beam positions.
He 111H-20/R4 This variant was used for nocturnal harassment missions, and could carry 20 × 110 lb (50 kg) SC-50 bombs externally.


Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-21 This version based on the airfram eof the He 111H-20/R3 introduced another pair of yet improved engines, and was powered by 2 × Junkers jumo 213E-1 inverted-Vee, rated at 1,750 hp (1.305 kW) each.The increased power meant it could carry a disposable load of 6,614 lb (3.000 kg). Max take-off weight was 35,273 lb (16.000 kg). Additionally it was structurally stengthened in a number of places. Delays in the delivery of the Jumo 213's meant that the first 22 aircraft were fitted with 2 × Junkers Jumo 211F engines equipped with turbochargers for high altitude. The max level speed was 298 Mph (480 km/h) at optimum altitude.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-22 Even while the He 111H-21 was entering service, it was clear that the days of the He 111 as abomber were over. Most aircraft were adapted to this versions while still on the production line. The He 111H-22 was able to air-launch a Fieseler Fi 103 V-1 bomb, having a carrier added for the V-1 under either the port or starboard wing. A number of He 111H-16's and He 111H-20's were converted to this standard as well.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111H-23 The final He 111H variant was completed in the fall of 1944. It was finished to accomodate a demolition team of 8 men which could operate behind enemy lines. The He 111H-23 was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 213A-1, rated at 1,776 hp (1.324 kW) each.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 6.200 He 111H's
Heinkel He 111Z-1 The final He 111 member was the He 111Z-1. It was actually 2 He 111H-6 airframes connected with a center section carrying a fifth Junkers jumo 211F-2 engine. These airracft were intended as glider tugs for the Messerschmitt Me 321 Gigant, or 2 Gotha Go 242's.
Number converted: 16 to 8 aircraft.
Heinkel He 111P-0 Pre-production version of the He 111P. The He 111P entered service just ahead of the He 111H series, and thus was the first version with the fully glazed nose. Although largely identical to the He 111H series, the He 111P series had 1 big difference: it was powered by 2 × Daimler Benz DB 601Aa, rated at 1,150 hp (857 kW) each.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 400 He 111P's
Heinkel He 111P-1 The first production version of the He 111P series differed next to nothing from the He 111P-0. It possessed a max level speed of 249 Mph (400 km/h) at an altitude of 16,405 ft (5.000 m). It was planned that the 8 vertical weapon cells should be replaced by a more modern 'horizontally arranged' weapons bay, but since it would need a thorough redesign of the lower fuselage, the idea was abandoned.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 400 He 111P's
Heinkel He 111P-2 Identical to the He 111P-1, except for different radio equipment. This version, together with the He 111P-1, saw extensive action in the first campaigns of the War. It suffered relatively high losses mainly because of the insufficient defensive armament
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 400 He 111P's
Heinkel He 111P-3 Trainer version converted from the He 111P-0 and He 111P-1
Number converted: unknown
Heinkel He 111P-4 Based on the He 111P-2, this version had increased armor protection, and heavier defensive armament (see above). Also, the portrow of bomb cells were redesigned so it could take an auxiliary fuel tank as well, of 184 Imp gal (221 US gal, 835 liters).Furthermore, it had 2 underwing hardpoints to be able to carry (part of) it's disposables external.
Number built: unknown out of a total of about 400 He 111P's
Heinkel He 111P-6 The final He 111P series version, the He 111P-6 had internal bomb stowage, and was powered by 2 × Daimler Benz DB 601N, rated 1,175 hp (876 kW) each. Production halted because of the shortage of the DB 601 engines. Some aircraft were then revised:

Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

He 111P-6/R2 Glider tug version


Number built: unknown out of a total of about 400 He 111P's

Remarks:

The Heinkel He 111 was the main bomber of Germany during the War. It fulfilled it's duties even after it was obsolete, and as such sometimes suffered heavy losses. The first campaign (Poland) already showed that good handling and reasonable performance are no good when attacked by much more fast and more nimble aircraft. Part of the problem lay in the fact that when the He 111 was used in the Spanish Civil War, it outperformed most of the enemy's fighters. This resulted in a neglected defensive area. Defensive armament was than changed drastically, but I'm not sure whether the older 3-gun models flew in the Battle of Britain, or the newer 6 - 8 gun aircraft (or a mix of the 2?). Fact remains that they suffered yet more heavy losses, because the oposition was much stiffer then. After that, it became clear that the Heinkel He 111 was becoming obsolete.

Strengths:

Weaknesses:

 

 

© by Frans Bonné, 2000
Last revision: 11/8/00