The Junkers Ju 88 

Germany
Germany

side view front view under view

The huge versatility of the Junkers Ju 88 rivals that of the De Havilland Mosquito. It was used as a bomber, dive-bomber, ground-support, night-fighter, reconnaissance aircraft and more. During the War years it was a feared sight by ground and naval forces, it was fast, tough, and difficult to knock out of the sky.
The history of the Ju 88 started in 1935, when a requirement for a three-seat fast bomber was issued by the German air ministry. Contenders were Focke-Wulf, Henschel and Messerschmitt. Junkers put a big effort in this, feeling that the winner would win large contracts.
The design would be very advanced, so much that Junkers didn't have designers or technological know-how on certain aspects of their ideas, and hired a couple of American engineers, W.H. Evers and A. Gassner. The real design work started in Januari 1936, and focussed on the Ju 85 and Ju 88, a twin vertical tail and a single vertical tail design respectively. Because the German air ministry thought that the Ju 88 would offer greater potential, work on the Ju 85 was halted. In may 1936 production of three prototypes of the Ju 88 started, and in december of the same year the first one made it's first flight.

Versions:

Further pictures:

Junkers Ju 88A in full flight
Junkers Ju 88A in full flight

Junkers Ju 88 on an airfield
Junkers Ju 88 on an airfield

 

Technical data on the Junkers Ju 88A-4
Powerplant 2 × Junkers Jumo 211J-1/2 inverted-Vee, rated at 1340 hp (998.96 kW) each Role during war
  • (Ground) Attack Fighter
  • Close Support Attack Fighter
  • Fighter-bomber
  • Night-Fighter
  • Long range (attack) Fighter
  • Medium Bomber
  • Dive Bomber
  • Torpedo Bomber
  • Reconnaissance Aircraft
Length 47 ft 2.75 inch Height 15 ft 11 inch
Empty weight 21737 lb Operational weight 26686 lb typical,
30865 lb max
Wing Span 65 ft 7.5 inch Wing Aspect ratio 7.34
Wing Area 586.63 sq ft Service ceiling 26900 ft
Maximum speed 292 mph at 17390 ft Cruising speed 248 mph at 16405 ft
Initial climb rate Climb to 17,715 ft in 23 min 0 sec Range 1112 miles typical,
1696 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 638 Imp gal (766 US gal), plus provision for a fuselage tank of 268 Imp gal (322 US gal), and/or an additional auxiliary weapons-bay fuel tank of 150 Imp gal (180 US gal) Fuel capacity external Up to 370 Imp gal (444 US gal) in 2 × 94 Imp gal (112 US gal) droptanks, and 2 × 91 Imp gal (110 US gal) droptanks
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 81fixed or trainable forward-firing in the windscreen
  • 1 × 0.51 inch MG 131 or 2 × 0.312 inch MG 81 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 0.51 inch MG 131 or 2 × 0.312 inch MG 81 trainable rearward-firing in the rear of the undernose gondola
  • 2 × 0.312 inch MG 81 trainable rearward-firing in the rear cockpit
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 5,511lb carried in a weapons bay rated at 1,102 lb, and on 6 underwing hardpoints, rated at 1,102 lb (inner wing pair) and 551 lb (two outboard pairs). General disposables load consisted of:
  • 10 × 110 lb SC-50 bombs carried internal
  • 2 × 1,102 lb SC-500 bombs under the inner wing hardpoints
  • 4 × 551 lb SC-250 bombs on the four outboard hardpoints.
Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 3: pilot, navigator/bombardier/gunner, radio operator/gunner Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 21 December 1936 Operational Service 1939 - 1945
Manufacturer Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke A.G. Number produced 14.980 total, over 7.000 Ju 88A's
Metric system
Length 14.4 m Height 4.85 m
Empty weight 9860 kg Operational weight 12105 kg typical,
14000 kg max
Wing Span 20 m Wing Aspect ratio 7.34
Wing Area 54.5 m² Service ceiling 8199 m
Maximum speed 470 km/h at 5300 m Cruising speed 399 km/h at 5000 m
Initial climb rate Climb to 5.400 m in 23 min 0 sec Range 1790 km typical,
2729 km max
Fuel capacity internal 2.900 liters, plus provision for a fuselage tank of 1.220 liters, and/or an additional auxiliary weapons-bay fuel tank of 680 liters Fuel capacity external Up to 1.680 liters in 2 × 425 liters droptanks, and 2 × 415 liters droptanks
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,62 mm MG 81fixed or trainable forward-firing in the windscreen
  • 1 × 13 mm MG 131 or 2 × 7,62 mm MG 81 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 13 mm MG 131 or 2 × 7,62 mm MG 81 trainable rearward-firing in the rear of the undernose gondola
  • 2 × 7,62 mm MG 81 trainable rearward-firing in the rear cockpit
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 2.500 kg carried in a weapons bay rated at 500 kg, and on 6 underwing hardpoints, rated at 500 kg (inner wing pair) and 250 kg (two outboard pairs). General disposables load consisted of:
  • 10 × 50 kg SC-50 bombs carried internal
  • 2 × 500 kg SC-500 bombs under the inner wing hardpoints
  • 4 × 250 kg SC-250 bombs on the four outboard hardpoints.
Torpedoes/rockets -

Technical data on the Junkers Ju 88C-6c
Powerplant 2 × Junkers Jumo 211J-1/2 inverted-Vee, rated at 1340 hp (998.96 kW) each Role during war
  • (Ground) Attack Fighter
  • Close Support Attack Fighter
  • Fighter-bomber
  • Night-Fighter
  • Long range (attack) Fighter
  • Medium Bomber
  • Dive Bomber
  • Torpedo Bomber
  • Reconnaissance Aircraft
Length 47 ft 1.33 inch Height 16 ft 7.5 inch
Empty weight 19973 lb Operational weight 27225 lb typical
Wing Span 65 ft 10.5 inch Wing Aspect ratio 7.4
Wing Area 586.65 sq ft Service ceiling 32480 ft
Maximum speed 307 mph at 17390 ft Cruising speed 279 mph at optimum altitude
Initial climb rate 1,772 ft per min,
Climb to 19,685 ft in 12 min 42 sec
Range 646 miles typical,
1230 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 704 Imp gal (845 US gal) Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 3 × 0.312 inch MG 17 fixed forward-firing in the nose, 2.800 rounds total
  • 1 × 0.51 inch MG 131 trainable rearward-firing in the rear cockpit, 750 rounds
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm MG 151/20 fixed forward-firing in the nose, 120 rounds
  • 2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 fixed forward-firing in the ventral tray, 120 rounds each
  • 2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 fixed obliquely up- and forward-firing in the central fuselage, 200 rounds each
Bomb load - Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 3: pilot, radar operator/gunner, radio operator/gunner Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 21 December 1936 Operational Service 1939 - 1945
Manufacturer Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke A.G. Number produced 14.980 total, over 3.200 Ju 88C's/R's
Metric system
Length 14.36 m Height 5.07 m
Empty weight 9060 kg Operational weight 12349 kg typical
Wing Span 20.08 m Wing Aspect ratio 7.4
Wing Area 54.5 m² Service ceiling 9900 m
Maximum speed 494 km/h at 5300 m Cruising speed 449 km/h at optimum altitude
Initial climb rate 540 m per min,
Climb to 6.000 m in 12 min 42 sec
Range 1040 km typical,
1979 km max
Fuel capacity internal 3.200 liters Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 3 × 7,62 mm MG 17 fixed forward-firing in the nose, 2.800 rounds total
  • 1 × 13 mm MG 131 trainable rearward-firing in the rear cockpit, 750 rounds
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm MG 151/20 fixed forward-firing in the nose, 120 rounds
  • 2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 fixed forward-firing in the ventral tray, 120 rounds each
  • 2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 fixed obliquely up- and forward-firing in the central fuselage, 200 rounds each
Bomb load - Torpedoes/rockets -

Technical data on the Junkers Ju 88D-1
Powerplant 2 × Junkers Jumo 211J-1/2 inverted-Vee, rated at 1340 hp (998.96 kW) each Role during war
  • (Ground) Attack Fighter
  • Close Support Attack Fighter
  • Fighter-bomber
  • Night-Fighter
  • Long range (attack) Fighter
  • Medium Bomber
  • Dive Bomber
  • Torpedo Bomber
  • Reconnaissance Aircraft
Length 47 ft 1.33 inch Height 15 ft 9 inch
Empty weight 19511 lb Operational weight 27227 lb max
Wing Span 65 ft 10.5 inch Wing Aspect ratio 7.4
Wing Area 586.65 sq ft Service ceiling 26250 ft
Maximum speed 301 mph at 15750 ft Cruising speed unknown
Initial climb rate 1,066 ft per min Range 2983 miles typical
Fuel capacity internal unknown Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the rear cockpit
  • 1 × 0.312 inch MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the ventral tray
Cannons -
Bomb load - Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 4: pilot, navigator/gunner, 2 gunners Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 21 December 1936 Operational Service 1939 - 1945
Manufacturer Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke A.G. Number produced 14.980 total, over 2.000 Ju 88D's/P's
Metric system
Length 14.36 m Height 4.8 m
Empty weight 8850 kg Operational weight 12350 kg max
Wing Span 20.08 m Wing Aspect ratio 7.4
Wing Area 54.5 m² Service ceiling 8001 m
Maximum speed 484 km/h at 4801 m Cruising speed unknown
Initial climb rate 325 m per min Range 4801 km typical
Fuel capacity internal unknown Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,62 mm MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 7,62 mm MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the rear cockpit
  • 1 × 7,62 mm MG 15 trainable forward-firing in the ventral tray
Cannons -
Bomb load - Torpedoes/rockets -

Here is a quick overview of all different versions, without the full technical specifications:

Different versions of the Junkers Ju 88 
Junkers Ju 88A-0 The first prototype of the Ju 88 flew in December 1936, powered by 2 × Daimler-Benz DB 600Aa inverted-Vee, rated at 1,000 hp (746 kW) each. The propeller was a three-blade model of the variable-pitch type. After it was destroyed in an accident during high-speed trials, testing went on with the V2 and V3 prototypes. The V2 was similar to the V1, but the V3 changed in a number of ways. It was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211A inverted-Vee, rated at 1,000 hp (746 kW) each. It had a raised cockpit roof, and was the first Ju 88 to carry the full military equipment.
the Ju 88 looked so promising that even before the copetitive evaluations against the Henschel Hs 127 and Messerschmitt Bf 162 were conducted, the aircraft was ordered into production. Atthat point it was decided that the Ju 88 should carry a four-man crew, improved defensive armament, and provision to act as a dive-bomber. The resulting V4 had dive-brakes, glazed panels in the nose in stead of solid panels, and an added gondola under the nose with provisions for 1 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 trainable rearward-firing guns.
6 more prototypes were produced, together with 10 Ju 88A-0 pre-production aircraft. These were delivered in March 1939 to the Erprobungskommando 88 to test the new aircraft under operational status.
Number built: 10
Junkers Ju 88A-1 The first production variant of the ju 88 was powered by 2 × junkers jumo 211B-1/G-1, rated at 1,210 hp (902 kW). Fuel capacity was 369 Imp gal (443 US gal, 1.675 liters) in four wing tanks, that could be supplemented by an auxiliary tank in the forward weapons bay with a capacity of 150 Imp gal (180 US gal, 680 liters).
The standard internal wepons load was 3,086 lb (1.400 kg), which consisted of 28 × 110 lb (50 kg) SC-50 bombs, plus 4 hardpoints each rated 1,102 lb (500 kg). The maximum weapons load was 5,291 lb (2.400 kg). Initially the Ju 88A-1 was armed with 3 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 guns, which were located in the windscreen, rear cockpit and undernose gondola. It turned out however that this was inadequate, so an additional second MG 15 was added to the one in the rear cockpit, and two lateral firing MG 15's were installed in the sides of the cockpit glazing. Other technical details are: Span of 60 ft 3.25 inch (18.37 m), aspect ratio of 6,43, wing area of 565.12 sq ft (52,50 m²). Length was 47 ft 2.67 inch (14,40 m), height of 17 ft 5.75 inch (5,33 m), empty weight of 16,975 lb (7.700 kg), max take-off weight of 22,840 lb (10.360 kg), max level speed of 280 mph (450 km/h) at 18,045 ft (5.500 m), cruising speed of 217 mph (350 km/h) at 18.045 ft (5.500 m), range of 1,056 miles (1.700 km) with the forward auxiliary fuel tank, and a service ceiling of 32,150 ft (9.800 m)
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-2 This version was identical to the Ju 88A-1, except for the attachment points or RATO units. RATO stands for Rocket Assisted Take Off, and these units where small rockets to boost take-off. After they were expended, the units were detached, and could be retrieved for future use because the descent was softened by a parachute.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-3 This version was a trainer variant with dual throttle, dual controls, and some dual instruments. It was meant to be used as a conversion trainer.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-4 This version was based on the Ju 88A-1, but had wings with increased span and area, inset ailerons in stead of trailing ones, and a strengthened main landing gear. Early aircraft were powered by 2 × Junkers jumo 211F-1, rated at 1,340 hp (999 kW), and the same defensive armament of the Ju 88A-1. For other details see above.
The Ju 88A-4 also had improved armor protection for the crew, and standard the forward weapons bay traded for the additional fual capacity. It also featured 2 additional hardpoints under the outer wing panels, rated at 551 lb (250 kg) each.
The Ju 88A-4 was the starting point for many more developments within the Ju 88A series. Some aircraft were in the field changed to another standard:

Umrüst-Bausätze (factory conversion sets):

Ju 88A-4/Torp Torpedo bomber conversion, see details of the Junkers Ju 88A-17.



Rüstsätze (field conversion sets):

Ju 88A-4/Trop This was the tropicalised version of the Ju 88A-4 with sand filters, desert survival equipment, and cockpit sun blinds.


Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-5 The development of the Junkers Jumo 211J lagged behind, and so an interim type for the Ju 88A-4 was created. This version reatined the older engines (Junkers Jumo 211B-1/G-1), but did have the 2 additional underwing outerpanel hardpoints, rated at 551 lb each. Also the main landing gear was strengthened with this version.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-6 This version was based on the Ju 88A-5, and was mainly intended to clear the way of the main bomber force by cutting the cables of balloon barrages. To do so it was fitted with a large forward-mounted fender that terminated at the wingtips. Atthat point a cable-cutting device was installed. The fender weighed 838 lb (380 kg), and had to be balanced with 132 lb (60 kg) of counterweight in the tail. The additional wight and drag caused the Ju 88A-6 to be slow and sluggish, and therefor an easy target.
The aircraft were soon withdrawn from the cable-cutting business, and were either converted back to a standard bomber, or to the Ju 88A-6/U standard:

Umrüst-Bausätze (factory conversion sets):

Ju 88A-6/U longe range maritime patrol aircraft with a crew of three. It had the undernose gondola removed, provisions for two underwing inboard drop tanks, and carried the FuG 200 Hohentwiel air-to-surface search radar


Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-7 This version was the dual-control conversion trainer based on the Ju 88A-5
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-8 This version was a balloon cutter based on the Ju 88A-4. The cutters were built into the wing leading edges, and the crew was reduced to three
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-9 This was the tropicalised version of the Ju 88A-1 with sand filters, desert survival equipment, and cockpit sun blinds.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-10 This was the tropicalised version of the Ju 88A-5 with sand filters, desert survival equipment, and cockpit sun blinds.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-11 This was the tropicalised version of the Ju 88A-4 with sand filters, desert survival equipment, and cockpit sun blinds.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-12 This version was the dual-control conversion trainer based on the Ju 88A-4. It had the dive-brakes, undernose gondola and all armament removed.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-13 This version was based on the Ju 88A-4, and was optimised for the low-level attack role. It had the dive-brakes and bomb-sight removed, additional armor for crew and engines and fuel, provisions for a disposable load of 1,102 lb (500 kg) of fragmentation bomblets, and fixed forward-firing armament provided in the form of up to 16 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 17 guns in pods carried on the underwing hardpoints.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-14 This version was an improvement on the Ju 88A-4, and featured an increased armor, balloon cable cutters in the wing leading edges, and sometimes an additional 1 × 20 mm MG FF forward-firing cannon in the forward part of the undernose gondola for anti-shipping purposes.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-15 This was a pure bomber version, based on the Ju 88A-4. It had an enlarged (wooden) weapons bay to accomodate 6,614 lb (3.000 kg) of bombs, a crew of three, no undernose gondola, and defensive armament reduced to 2 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 guns.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-16 This version was the dual-control conversion trainer based on the Ju 88A-14. It had the undernose gondola and all armament removed.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88A-17 The last Ju 88A version was based on the Ju 88A-4, and was optimised for the Torpedo Bomber role. It had four ETC racks inboard of the engines replaced by two PUC racks each capable of carrying 1 × 1,686 lb (765 kg) LT F5b torpedo. The forward fuselage was revised to carry a large bulged fairin gon the starboard side which accomodated the gear to adjust the guidance mechanism of the torpedo before release. The crew was reduced to three, and most aircraft had their gondola removed.
Number built: unknown out of more than 7.000 Ju 88A's
Junkers Ju 88C-1 The Junkers company decided to create a Heavy Fighter version of the Ju 88. The heavy fighter was preceeded with the Ju 88 V7 prototype. Already they were working on a heavy fighter in the way of a proposed Ju 88B-series. The Ju 88C-sereis was to have an improved armament, offensively and defensively. Also the weapons bay could be discarded, and another type of engines would power it.
The Ju 88B-series would have a powerplant of 2 × 213 Inverted Vee. The Ju 88C would be powered by 2 × BMW 139 radials, later changed to BMW 801 radials. With this lats decidsion the Ju 88B and Ju 88C were very close to each other, and thus the Ju 88B series died a silent death. The German Air ministry ordered the Ju 88C-1 powered by 2 × BMW 801MA radials, but since the engine would be reserved exclusively for the Focke-Wulf Fw 190, the project was halted. No Ju 88C-1's were ever produced.
Number built: 0
Junkers Ju 88C-2 The Air ministry was still interested in a heavy fighter variant from the Ju 88, and ordered the Ju 88C-2. It was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211B-1 inverted-Vee, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW) each. Based on the Ju 88A-1, it would have the same armament of the Ju 88 C-1, but the nose would be revised with less glazing, and an armored bulkhead. This version still retained the rear weapons bay, which could carry 10 × 100 lb (50 kg) SC-50 bombs. The front weapons bay was replaced by an auxiliary fuel tank. Other technical details are: wing span of 60 ft 3.25 inch (18,37 m), max take-off weight of 24,250 lb (11.000 kg), max level speed of 295 mph (475 km/h) at 18,045 ft (5.500 m), range of 1,131 miles (1.820 km). It first flew in the spring of 1940 as a coastal anti-shipping aircraft, and later switched to the night-intruder role during the fall of 1940.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88C-4 The ju 88C-3 was a still-born version powered by 2 × BMW 801 radials, but the Ju 88C-4 was the first true heavy fighter. Initially it was powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211F-1 inverted-Vee's, but later by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211J-1/2 inverted-Vee, rated at 1,340 hp (999 kW) each. The Ju 88C-4 was based at the Ju 88A-4, but with a larger span of 65 ft 7.5 inch (20,00 m). Further it had an additional 2 × 20 mm MG FF fixed forward-firing cannons in the ventral gondola, 120 rounds each (it already had 2 of them, plus 2 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 17 guns, positions unknown to me). The additional 20 mm MG FF's could be replaced by two cameras, enabling the Ju 88C-4 to operate as an armed reconnaissance aircraft. Defensive armament was increased with 1 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 15 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral gondola, and the change to 2 × 0.312 inch (7,62 mm) MG 81J trainable rearward-firing guns in the rear cockpit.
Four hardpoints under the inner wings were fitted, able to carry bombs externally, or 2 × WB 81 pods. These pods each had 6 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 81, fixed forward-firing with an angle downward of -15 ° for ground-attack purposes.
Number built: less than 100.
Junkers Ju 88C-5 Based on the Ju 88C-4, but powered with 2 × BMW 801D-2 radials, ratedt at 1,700 hp (1.268 kW) each. The 20 mm MG FF cannon was replaced by a faster firing model, the MG 151/20. The undernose gondola was replaced by a weapon tray that extended down from the weapons bay, carrying 2 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 17 fixed forward-firing guns. Because of shortages of the engine, this series was produced in only a very limited number.
Number built: 10
Junkers Ju 88C-6 The first Ju 88C variant that was produced in large numbers. It was based at the Ju 88C-4, and had additional armor for the crew. Also, a number of aircraft were delivered without the ventral gondola and it's 2 × 20 mm cannons, and the defensive guns equipment ranged freely based on the availability of weapons.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88C-6a After the Junkers Ju 88C-6b entered production and service, the Junkers Ju 88C-6 was redesignated Junkers Ju 88C-6a to show it was a day-fighter.
Redesignated aircraft
Junkers Ju 88C-6b The first true night-fighter variant of the Ju 88. It was fitted with a FuG 202 Liechtenstein BC, or a FuG 212 Lichtenstein C-1 airborne interception radar. Fixed forward armament consisted of 3 × 20 mm MG FF cannons, and 3 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 17 guns.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88C-6c The successor to the Junkers Ju 88C-6b. It was fitted with another array of radars:
  • FuG 220 Lichtenstein SN-2 airborne interception radar. This radar was able to deal with 'Window' (or 'Chaff' as the Americans called it) that was ejected by the British bombers to create multiple radar echoes.
  • FuG 227 Flensburg, radar tuned to the british 'Monica' tail-warning radar of the British bombers.
  • FuG 350 Naxos Z radar, tuned to the British navigational H2S radar
Later aircraft also received a 'Shräge Musik' installation, in the form of 2 × 20 mm MG 151/20 cannons, that were fixed and pointed obliquely forward and upward. This enabled the night-fighter to attack the weak belly of the bomber.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88C-7a Daylight fighter version, counterpart of the Ju 88C-6. This version had the undernose gondola replaced by a weapon tray positioned in the forward weapons bay. This tray contained 2 × 20 mm MG FF/M cannons. The rear weapons bay could still carry a load of up to 1,102 lb of bombs, generally consisting of 10 × 110 lb (50 kg) SC-50 bombs.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88C-7b Equivalent of the Junkers Ju 88C-7a, but with 4 underwing hardpoints to increase the weapons load to 3,307 lb (1.500 kg).
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88D-0 The Ju 88D was intended as the replacement of the Dornier Do 17P for the strategic reconnaissance. For this the forward weapons bay was removed, and an additional fuel tank installed. The dive brakes were removed, and provisions for 3 cameras were made in the lower fuselage. This included the heating of the cameras to prevent them from freezing in the cold Russian winters.
This version, the preproduction run, received 2 × Junkers Jumo 211 B-1, G-1, or H-1, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW) each.
Number built: unknown out of more than 1.450 Ju 88D's
Junkers Ju 88D-1 This version surfaced after the Ju 88D-2, and was like planned powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211J-1/2, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW). The airframe was based on the Ju 88A-4 bomber.

Umrüst-Bausätze (factory conversion sets):

Ju 88D-1/Trop Tropicalized version of the Junkers Ju 88D-1. This version became so important that it received the new designation Ju 88D-4


Junkers Ju 88D-2 This version should have been equal to the Junkers Ju 88D-0 except for the engines. But since the Junkers Jumo 211J's were still not available, the Junkers Ju 88D-2 was built, and powered by 2 × Junkers Jumo 211G-1, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW) each. The airframe was based on the Ju 88A-5, and could additionally carry 2 × 198 Imp gal (238 US gal, 900 liters) underwing drop tanks.

Umrüst-Bausätze (factory conversion sets):

Ju 88D-2/Trop Tropicalized version of the Junkers Ju 88D-2. This version became so important that it received the new designation Ju 88D-3


Number built: unknown out of more than 1.450 Ju 88D's
Junkers Ju 88D-3 Redesignated Ju 88D-2/Trop
Redesignated aircraft
Junkers Ju 88D-4 Redesignated Ju 88D-1/Trop
Redesignated aircraft
Junkers Ju 88D-5 Based on the Ju 88D-2, but standard with 3 in stead of 2 cameras.
Number built: unknown out of more than 1.450 Ju 88D's
Junkers Ju 88P During the Russian campaigns the Soviets managed to throw more and more, better and better armored vehicles at the Germans. For example the T-34 tank, that had a good armor and armament, and was produced at incredible numbers. To try to eliminate the threat, the Germans were looking for an improved ground-attack and anti-tank aircraft. One of those aircraft was the Ju 88C.
The Ju 88C already had an external weapons tray that could be adapted to carry an anti-tank gun. The first Ju 88P V1 however was a converted Ju 88A-4, fitted with 1 × 75 mm (2.95 inch) KwK tank gun. The tray in which it was carried replaced the original ventral tray, and also carried 1 × 0.312 inch (7,92 mm) MG 81z two-barrel trainable rearward-firing gun. Flight and trials showed that it could well be adapted for anti-tank duties, resulting in initially a small order for production.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88P-1 This version was identical to the Ju 88P V1, except that the ant-tank cannon was 1 × 75 mm (2.95 inch) PaK 40 with a larger muzzle break to reduce the recoil of the cannon, and electro pneumatic operation. Also it had a solid nose, as opposed to a glazed one.
Because the large installation under the aircraft, it suffered performance and agility. It became vulnerable to Soviet fighters, and so the whole under-fuselage contraption could be jettisoned with small explosives in an emergency.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88P-2 Because the performance loss of the Ju 88P-1, a solution had to be found. This led to the development of the Ju 88P-2, which was based at the Ju 88A-4, armed with 2 × 37 mm BK 3,7 fixed forward-firing cannons
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88P-3 Similar to the Ju 88P-2, but with increased crew protection in the way of additional armor
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88P-4 Similar to tje Ju 88P-3, but armed with 1 × 50 mm BK 5 anti-tank cannon in stead of the 2 × 37 mm ones.
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88R-1 Parallel development of the Ju 88C-6c, that differed only with respect to the powerplant. This version was powered by 2 × BMW 801MA radials, rated at 1,600 hp (1.193 kW) each
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's
Junkers Ju 88R-2 Parallel development of the Ju 88C-6c, that differed only with respect to the powerplant. This version was powered by 2 × BMW 801D radials, rated at 1,600 hp (1.193 kW) each
Number built: unknown out of more than 3.200 Ju 88C's, Ju 88P's and Ju 88R's

Remarks:

The Junkers Ju 88 made a name during the Battle of Britain. Together with the Heinkel He 111 it was the backbone of the German Luftwaffe bomber force. Later it was used during night raids against targets in Britain, and later yet it played an important role in the Russian Campaigns. It was then that the first real night-fighter variants were developed, and anti-tank variants.
A number of these aircraft have served on Allied side too, after they were captured. France even used them until after World War 2.

Strengths:

Weaknesses:

 

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© by Frans Bonné, 2000
Last revision: 12/11/00