The Martin Maryland 

United States of America
United States of America

Sorry, No ID pictures yet

In 1937 the USAAC issued a requirement for a three-seat attack bomber. This aircraft was required to have a fixed forward-firing battery of machine guns for grouns attack, a disposable load of 1,200 lb (544 kg), a max level speed of at least 200 mph (322 km/h), and a range of 1,200 miles (1.931 km). 3 more companies antered the competition, Bell, Douglas and Stearman. After Bell withdrew, North American took their place. Each of the companies was asked to deliver one prototype.
The prototype of Stearman was rejected soon after deliverie, but the other three would become famous in th War to come. The prototype of Douglas was designated XA-20, and became known as the A-20 Havoc, Douglas Boston or DB-7. Look elsewhere on this website for a full feature. The North American prototype wasn't assigned an A-for-Attack designation, but entered service later as the B-25 Mitchell. The Martin prototype never secured a contract for the USAAC, and the company decided to concentrate on export markets.
Around the time that the Model 167W, also called XA-22, flew for the first time, Martin received their first order. A French purchasing commision ordered 115 aircraft in Januari 1939. The Model 167W had a reasonable distinctive pod-and-boom layout, in which the tail was much narrower than the cockpit and weapons bay section (the pod). The French wanted a number of changes which were incorporated into the Model 167F.
The order meant almost a doubling in production capacity in their facility in Maryland. The French contract asked for delivery within 6 months after the contract had been signed, but an American embargo needed to be lifted before these aircraft actually were shipped. In the meantime the French had ordered an extra 100 aircraft which were promptly built after the embargo lifted in October 1939.

Versions:

Further pictures:

Martin Maryland on an airfield. Notice the extensively glazed nose, and the cockpit over the wing leading edge
Martin Maryland on an airfield. Notice the extensively glazed nose, and the cockpit over the wing leading edge

Martin Maryfield taking off (or landing)
Martin Maryfield taking off (or landing)

 

Technical data on the Martin Maryland Mk II
Powerplant 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3C4-G Twin Wasp radial, rated at 1200 hp (894.59 kW) each Role during war
  • Light Bomber
  • Maritime/Coastal patrol reconnaissance Bomber
  • Reconnaissance Aircraft
  • Transport
  • Trainer
Length 46 ft 8 inch Height 14 ft 11.75 inch
Empty weight 11213 lb Operational weight 16809 lb max
Wing Span 61 ft 4 inch Wing Aspect ratio 6.99
Wing Area 538.5 sq ft Service ceiling 26000 ft
Maximum speed 278 mph at 11800 ft Cruising speed unknown
Initial climb rate 1,790 ft per min Range 1210 miles typical,
1800 miles max
Fuel capacity internal unknown Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.303 inch Vickers 'K' trainable rearward-firing in the dorsal turret
  • 1 × 0.303 inch Vickers 'K' trainable rearward-firing in the ventral step position
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 2,000 lb, carried in a lower-fuselage weapons bay rated 2,000 lb. General disposables load consisted of 4 × 500 lb bombs Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 3: pilot, navigator/bombardier/gunner, radio operator/gunner Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 14 March 1939 Operational Service 1939 - 1945
Manufacturer Glenn L. Martin Company Number produced 441 total, 150 this version
Metric system
Length 14.22 m Height 4.57 m
Empty weight 5086 kg Operational weight 7625 kg max
Wing Span 18.69 m Wing Aspect ratio 6.99
Wing Area 50.03 m² Service ceiling 7925 m
Maximum speed 447 km/h at 3597 m Cruising speed unknown
Initial climb rate 546 m per min Range 1947 km typical,
2897 km max
Fuel capacity internal unknown Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,7 mm Vickers 'K' trainable rearward-firing in the dorsal turret
  • 1 × 7,7 mm Vickers 'K' trainable rearward-firing in the ventral step position
Cannons -
Bomb load Up to 907 kg, carried in a lower-fuselage weapons bay rated 907 kg. General disposables load consisted of 4 × 227 kg bombs Torpedoes/rockets -

Here is a quick overview of all different versions, without the full technical specifications:

Different versions of the Martin Maryland 
Martin Model 167W Initial type as built by Martin. This type only flew as the prototype, XA-22. It was powered by 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-37 radials, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW) each. Some details about the XA-22 or Model 167W are: length of 46 ft 8 in (14,22 m), span of 61 ft 4 in (18.69 m), empty weight of 16,000 lb (7.258 kg), max level speed of 280 mph (386 km/h) and a service ceiling of 20,000 ft (6.095 m). The armament consisted of 4 × 0.3 (7,62 mm) Browning fixed forward-firing guns in the wing leading edge for grounds attacks, 1 × 0.3 inch (7,62 mm) Browning trainable rearward-firing gun in a retractable dorsal turret, and 1 × 0.3 inch (7,62 mm) Browning trainable rearward-firing gun in a ventral step right behind the weapons bay.
Number built: 1
Martin Model 167F This version was based on the Model 167W, but modified according to French wishes. It was powered by 2 × Wright R-1820 Cyclone radials, rated at 950 hp (708 kW), later 1,100 hp (820 kW) each. This choice was probably because France had a number of aircraft already operating with this engine, and as such had knowledge and spare parts. Other changes concerned French instruments, the 0.303 inch (7,7 mm) guns replaced with 0.295 inch (7,5 mm) FN-Browning guns of which one was located in a semi-retractable dorsal turret, and underwing racks for an additional 500 lb of bombs. These racks were probably never used.
Number built: 140
Martin Model 167A.3 This was the French designation of the Model 167F. 167A.3 means: Armée trois-place, or three-seat army support.
Redesignated aircraft
Martin Maryland Mk I This designation was given to the remaining 75 French aircraft of their second order, and to 75 aircraft of an original British order. The first group was identical to the Model 167F, the second group was different. The original British aircraft were powered by 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-SC3-G Twin Wasp radials with a one-stage supercharger, rated at 1,050 hp (783 kW) each. It was in it's turn armed with British guns, in stead of American or French, and had an Armstrong-Whitworth dorsal turret.
Technical details of the Maryland Mk I (British) are identical to the Maryland Mk II, except for: empty weight of 10,586 lb (4.802 kg), max take-off weight of 15,297 lb (6.939 kg), max level speed of 275 mph (443 km/h), cruising speed of 248 mph (399 km/h), range of 1,300 miles (2.092 km), and a service ceiling of 29,500 ft (8.990 m).
Number built: 75 + 75
Martin Maryland Mk II This version was an all-British order. It was powered by 2 × Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3C4-G Twin Wasp radial with a two-stage supercharger, rated at 1,200 hp (895 kW) each. Because of the two-stage supercharger the Maryland could operate in the high-altitudes as well.
Number built: 150

Remarks:

The Maryland was used by the French, British, Free French and Vichy French forces. The complete first order of 115 aircraft, and the first 25 of the second order were delivered to France before the capitulation of France in May 1940. Before this moment, the Maryland was used in a number of roles. Although it had been built for ground attack duties, the French used it in stead as a medium-altitude level bomber. During the German march through France the Maryland achieved little, and 17 aircraft were lost to the hands of German anti-aircraft artillery. This was actually the lowest loss rate of all French bombers (8 %)
Early in June the aircraft were transported south, to help and stop the Italian advance there. By the end of June there were no serviceable aircraft left in France, but some aircraft had been transferred to French West Africa, where they were used as reconnaissance bombers

The remaining 75 aircraft of the second French order were diverted to the UK when France capitulated. Great Britain had ordered 75 aircraft themselves before the War broke out. Of these 150 aircraft several were used for evaluation. Others were transferred the the Fleet Air Arm where they were used as fast target towers, or for medium-range reconnaissance. Most of thesae aircraft however were sent to the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern Theatres, to be used as bombers and for coastal reconnaissance. Later some of the Model 167F's were returned to the Free French air force, which operated them in France (after the landings in Normandy). Because they were too vulnerable against the German fighters, they were used against German strongholds in French ports after these forces had been cut off of air support.
The aircraft of the second British order (Maryland Mk II's) were used as light bombers up to 1942, after which they were used for reconnaissance duties. After that they were gradually used as trainers or transports.
Marylands that were used as reconnaissance aircraft scored a number of successes. Marylands were used for reconnoitering the Italian naval base at Taranto, preceeding the Fleet Air Arms attack and gaining vital information. Also, a Maryland is known to have spotted the departure of the German capital ships Bismark and Prinz Eugen in May 1941, which eventually lead to the sinking of the Bismarck.

Strengths:

Weaknesses:

 

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© by Frans Bonné, 2000
Last revision: 5/20/01