The Mitsubishi G4M 

Allied codename 'Betty'

Japan
Japan

Sorry, No ID pictures yet

The Betty-bomber was the most well known bomber of the Japanese air forces during World War 2. It was the bigger brother of the Mitsubishi G3M, with better performance and range.
The type originated in a 1937 requirement of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force for a successor to the G3M, and the task of designing the improved type was entrusted by Mitsubishi to a team under the leadership of Kiro Honjo, who quickly decided that the requirement could not be met with the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force’s preferred power of 2,000 hp (1.491 kW) provided by two engines, and therefore opted for two examples of the new Mitsubishi MK4 Kasei radials rated at 1,500 hp (1.118 kW) and supplied with fuel from integral wing tanks. The resulting aeroplane was very clean in aerodynamic terms and of essentially all-metal construction with fabric-covered control surfaces, a fuselage of basically oval section, a plain tail unit with a single vertical surface, a mid/low-set dihedraled wing that was tapered in thickness and chord and carried a trailing-edge combination of outboard ailerons and inboard flaps, and tailwheel landing gear that included main units which retracted into the underside of the nacelles for the two wing-mounted engines.

Versions:

Further pictures:

Mitsubishi G4M under evaluation by the USAAF
Mitsubishi G4M under evaluation by the USAAF

Mitsubishi G4M 'Nell' in full flight
Mitsubishi G4M 'Nell' in full flight

 

Technical data on the Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 11
Powerplant 2 × Mitsuishi MK4A Kasei 11 radial, rated at 1530 hp (1140.6 kW) each Role during war
  • Medium Bomber
Length 65 ft 7.25 inch Height 19 ft 8.25 inch
Empty weight 14991 lb Operational weight 20944 lb max
Wing Span 82 ft 0.25 inch Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 840.93 sq ft Service ceiling unknown
Maximum speed 266 mph at 13780 ft Cruising speed 196 mph at 9845 ft
Initial climb rate Climb to 22,965 ft in 18 min 0 sec Range 3749 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 1,078 Imp gal (1,294 US gal) Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable rearward-firing in a dorsal blister position
  • 2 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable lateral-firing, 1 in each beam position
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
Bomb load Up to 1,764 lb, carried on underfuselage hardpoints with a total rating of 1,764 lb. General disposables load consisted of:
  • up to 1,764 lb of free-fall bombs
Torpedoes/rockets
  • 1 × 1,764 lb torpedo in stead of bombs
Crew 7: pilot, co-pilot, navigator/bombardier, radio operator/gunner, three gunners Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 23 October 1939 Operational Service 1940 - 1945
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.K. Number produced 2.446 total, 1.200 G4M1
Metric system
Length 20 m Height 6 m
Empty weight 6800 kg Operational weight 9500 kg max
Wing Span 25 m Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 78.12 m² Service ceiling unknown
Maximum speed 428 km/h at 4200 m Cruising speed 315 km/h at 3001 m
Initial climb rate Climb to 7.000 m in 18 min 0 sec Range 6033 km max
Fuel capacity internal 4.900 liters Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 1 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable rearward-firing in a dorsal blister position
  • 2 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable lateral-firing, 1 in each beam position
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
Bomb load Up to 800 kg, carried on underfuselage hardpoints with a total rating of 800 kg. General disposables load consisted of:
  • up to 800 kg of free-fall bombs
Torpedoes/rockets
  • 1 × 800 kg torpedo in stead of bombs

Technical data on the Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22
Powerplant 2 × Mitsuishi MK4P Kasei 21 radial, rated at 1800 hp (1341.88 kW) each Role during war
  • Medium Bomber
Length 65 ft 7.25 inch Height 19 ft 8.25 inch
Empty weight 17990 lb Operational weight 27558 lb max
Wing Span 82 ft 0.25 inch Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 840.93 sq ft Service ceiling 29365 ft
Maximum speed 272 mph at 15090 ft Cruising speed 196 mph at 13125 ft
Initial climb rate Climb to 26,245 ft in 30 min 24 sec Range 3270 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 1,078 Imp gal (1,294 US gal) plus provision for a fuselage mounted tank of 350 Imp gal (420 US gal) of auxiliary fuel Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 2 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 2 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable lateral-firing, 1 in each beam position
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable in the dorsal turret
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
Bomb load Up to 2,205 lb, carried on underfuselage hardpoints with a total rating of 2,205 lb. General disposables load consisted of:
  • up to 2,205 lb of bombs
Torpedoes/rockets
  • 1 × 1,764 lb torpedo in stead of bombs
  • 1 × Navy Special Attacker Ohka Model 11 in stead of all other warloads (G4M2e)
Crew 7: pilot, co-pilot, navigator/bombardier, radio operator/gunner, three gunners Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 23 October 1939 Operational Service 1940 - 1945
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.K. Number produced 2.446 total, 1.154 G4M2
Metric system
Length 20 m Height 6 m
Empty weight 8160 kg Operational weight 12500 kg max
Wing Span 25 m Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 78.12 m² Service ceiling 8950 m
Maximum speed 438 km/h at 4599 m Cruising speed 315 km/h at 4000 m
Initial climb rate Climb to 8.000 m in 30 min 24 sec Range 5262 km max
Fuel capacity internal 4.900 liters plus provision for a fuselage mounted tank of 1.590 liters of auxiliary fuel Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 2 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 2 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable lateral-firing, 1 in each beam position
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable in the dorsal turret
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
Bomb load Up to 1.000 kg, carried on underfuselage hardpoints with a total rating of 1.000 kg. General disposables load consisted of:
  • up to 1.000 kg of bombs
Torpedoes/rockets
  • 1 × 800 kg torpedo in stead of bombs
  • 1 × Navy Special Attacker Ohka Model 11 in stead of all other warloads (G4M2e)

Technical data on the Mitsubishi G4M3 Model 34
Powerplant 2 × Mitsuishi MK4T Kasei 25 radial, rated at 1825 hp (1360.52 kW) each Role during war
  • Medium Bomber
Length 63 ft 11.72 inch Height 19 ft 8.25 inch
Empty weight 18409 lb Operational weight 27588 lb max
Wing Span 82 ft 0.25 inch Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 840.93 sq ft Service ceiling 30250 ft
Maximum speed 292 mph at 16895 ft Cruising speed 196 mph at 13125 ft
Initial climb rate Climb to 22,965 ft in 20 min 10 sec Range 2694 miles max
Fuel capacity internal 988 Imp gal (1,187 US gal) Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 2 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 2 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable lateral-firing, 1 in each beam position
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable in the dorsal turret
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
Bomb load Up to 2,205 lb, carried on underfuselage hardpoints with a total rating of 2,205 lb. General disposables load consisted of:
  • up to 2,205 lb of bombs
Torpedoes/rockets
  • 1 × 1,764 lb torpedo in stead of bombs
Crew 7: pilot, co-pilot, navigator/bombardier, radio operator/gunner, three gunners Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 23 October 1939 Operational Service 1940 - 1945
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.K. Number produced 2.446 total, 60 G4M3
Metric system
Length 19.5 m Height 6 m
Empty weight 8350 kg Operational weight 12514 kg max
Wing Span 25 m Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 78.12 m² Service ceiling 9220 m
Maximum speed 470 km/h at 5150 m Cruising speed 315 km/h at 4000 m
Initial climb rate Climb to 7.000 m in 20 min 10 sec Range 4335 km max
Fuel capacity internal 4.490 liters Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 2 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
  • 2 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable lateral-firing, 1 in each beam position
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable in the dorsal turret
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
Bomb load Up to 1.000 kg, carried on underfuselage hardpoints with a total rating of 1.000 kg. General disposables load consisted of:
  • up to 1.000 kg of bombs
Torpedoes/rockets
  • 1 × 800 kg torpedo in stead of bombs

Technical data on the Mitsubishi G6M1
Powerplant 2 × Mitsuishi MK4A Kasei 11 radial, rated at 1530 hp (1140.6 kW) each Role during war
  • Long range (attack) Fighter
Length 65 ft 11.625 inch Height 19 ft 8.25 inch
Empty weight 15432 lb Operational weight 20944 lb max
Wing Span 82 ft 0.25 inch Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 840.93 sq ft Service ceiling unknown
Maximum speed unknown Cruising speed unknown
Initial climb rate unknown Range unknown
Fuel capacity internal 800 Imp gal (961 US gal) Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 0.303 inch Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable in the beam blisters
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral blister
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable forward-firing in the ventral blister
Bomb load - Torpedoes/rockets -
Crew 10: pilot, co-pilot, navigator, radio operator/gunner, 6 gunners Naval or ground based Ground
First flight (prototype) 23 October 1939 Operational Service 1940 - 1945
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Jukogyo K.K. Number produced 2.446 total, 30 G6M1
Metric system
Length 20.11 m Height 6 m
Empty weight 7000 kg Operational weight 9500 kg max
Wing Span 25 m Wing Aspect ratio 8
Wing Area 78.12 m² Service ceiling unknown
Maximum speed unknown Cruising speed unknown
Initial climb rate unknown Range unknown
Fuel capacity internal 3.640 liters Fuel capacity external -
Machine guns
  • 1 × 7,7 mm Type 92 trainable forward-firing in the nose
Cannons
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable in the beam blisters
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the tail turret
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable rearward-firing in the ventral blister
  • 1 × 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 trainable forward-firing in the ventral blister
Bomb load - Torpedoes/rockets -

Here is a quick overview of all different versions, without the full technical specifications:

Different versions of the Mitsubishi G4M 
Mitsubishi 12-Shi prototypes These aircraft were the prototype for the G4M 'Betty' bomber. They resulted from the same requirement (12-Shi) as the A6M 'Zero' fighter. The 12-Shi prototypes were powered with 2 × Mitsubishi MK4A Kasei 11 radials, rated at 1,530 hp (1.140 kW) each., driving three-bladed propellers.
Flight tests started at 23 October 1939, and were very encouraging. Only minor modifications were deemed necessary. For example: the second prototype had a slightly larger vertical fin, and was fitted aileron tab balances.
Number built: 2
Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 11 'Betty' The G4M series started with the Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 11, and was immediately a succes. It was designed to have an internal bomb bay, while still enabling crew movement through the aircraft. Also the desing took mass productio into account, simplifying production. See technical details above. However, the aircraft was, like the G3M, not fiited with any armor protection for crew, equipment and fuel tanks, and the need for the extreme ranges meant that the structure was built as light as possible. This in turn meant that the aircraft was vulnerable for attacks, resulting in a somewhat 'flimsy' construction. This would plague the G4M during the late War years.
Number built: unknown out of 1.200 G4M1's
Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 12 'Betty' This version was identical to the Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 11, except for it's powerplant. This version was powered by 2 × Mitsubishi MK4E Kasei 15 radial, rated at 1,530 hp (1.141 kW) for take-off, and 1,280 hp (954 kW) at 19,685 ft (6.000 m), each. The reason for uprating the powerplant was the need for the G4M to get above the range of light anti-aircraft guns, that had caused increasingly losses sustained when attacking targets around Port Moresby. At that stage in the War (early 1942) also fighter opposition became stronger. Even the older obsolescent fighters were able to intercept the G4M, which was vulnerable to even rifle-calibre machineguns (0.303 inch, 7,7 mm). A boost in performance and height wouldn't do any harm…
Number built: unknown out of 1.200 G4M1's
Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22 'Betty' This version saw more changes, resulting in a new version number. It had once again an uprated powerplant, this time 2 × Mitsubishi MK4P Kasei 21 radial, rated at 1,800 hp (1.342 kW) for take-off, and 1,410 hp (1.051 kW) at 15,750 ft (4.800 m), each. Structirally there was a new wing of laminar-flow section, horizontal tail surface with greater area, and rounded tips on the wing and tailplane. The bombardiers position was revised for improved nocturnal capability, provision for 1 × 0.303 inch (7,7 mm) Type 92 trainable lateral-firing machine gun firing through a small port on either side of the nose, the replacement of the dorsal blister position by a power-operated turret armed with a 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 cannon, provision for a fuselage-mounted tank accommodating 350 Imp gal (420 US gal; 1.590 liters) of auxiliary fuel and, from the 65th aeroplane, doors for the weapons bay were installed as well.
Number built: unknown out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22A 'Betty' This subversion had the lateral-firing 0.303 inch (7,7 mm) guns in the beam positions replaced by 20 mm Type 99 Model 1 cannon.
Number built: unknown out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22B 'Betty' This subversion had all four 20 mm cannon replaced by 20 mm Type 99 Model 2 weapons.
Number built: unknown out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24 'Betty' This version was powered by 2 × Mitsubishi MK4T kasei 25, which had an improved fuel consumption, and was fitted with bulged bomb-bay doors. Otherwise it was identical to the G4M2 Model 22
Number built: 14 out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24A 'Betty' This version was powered by 2 × Mitsubishi MK4T kasei 25, which had an improved fuel consumption, and was fitted with bulged bomb-bay doors. Otherwise it was identical to the G4M2 Model 22A
Number built: unknown out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24B 'Betty' This version was powered by 2 × Mitsubishi MK4T kasei 25, which had an improved fuel consumption, and was fitted with bulged bomb-bay doors. Otherwise it was identical to the G4M2 Model 22B
Number built: unknown out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24C 'Betty' This version was powered by 2 × Mitsubishi MK4T kasei 25, which had an improved fuel consumption, and was fitted with bulged bomb-bay doors. Otherwise it was identical to the G4M2 Model 22B, except that the 0.303 inch (7,7 mm) machine gun in the nose was replaced by 1 × 0.51 inch (13 mm) Type 2 gun. Late production aircraft were also fitted with air-surface radar.
Number built: unknown out of 1.154 G4M2's
Mitsubishi G4M2b Model 25 'Betty' Single prototype, powered with 2 × Mitsubishi MK4V Kasei 27.
Number built: 1
Mitsubishi G4M2c Model 26 'Betty' Two aircraft built to test the supercharged Mitsubishi MK4T-B Ru Kasei 25b Ru engines, which where turbosupercharged.
Number built: 2
Mitsubishi G4M2e Model 24J 'Betty' Quite a number of Model 24B's and Model 24C's had their bomb-bay doors removed, and were fitted with shakkles to carry the Ohka piloted suicide aircraft/missile. This modification was then designated G4M2e Model 24J
Number converted: unknown
Mitsubishi G4M3 Model 34 'Betty' This version was developed too late to enter service. It was based on the G4M2, but had self sealing fuel tanks, and armor protection for the crew.
Number built: about 60
Mitsubishi G6M1 Operational experience with the G3M showed that the bombers needed a fighter escort. Because there was no fighter with the range of the G4M, the Yokosuka Experimental Air Corps recommended that the G4M was adopted for this task. The resulting aircraft was called a Wingtip Convoy Fighter, and was modified as such. The weapons-bay was faired over, and instead there was a ventral gondola installed with forward and rearward firing cannon. The guns in the beam position were replaced by a single 20 mm cannon, the nose gun was retained, the tail cannon was retained, and the dorsal gun was removed. The aircraft received additional ammo drums for the four cannon and single gun.
Tests proved that the concept failed to live up to the expectations, mainly because the aircraft were overweight. After the bombers had dropped their load, they became much leighter and were much faster than the still heavilly loaded G6M1's. This concept was also tried by the Allies with the Boeing B-17 and Boeing YB-40, and with the Consolidated B-24 and Consolidated YB-41, and failed as well.
Number built: 30
Mitsubishi G6M1-K Because the G6M1 concept failed the aircraft were used for other duties. This modified type was used as an advanced trainer.
Number converted: unknown, probably all 30 G6M1
Mitsubishi G6M1-L2 After the G6M1-K had served it's time as a crew trainer, the aircraft were converted once more, this time as transports, specifically for paratroopers.
Number converted: unknown, probably all 30 G6M1-K
Navy Experimental 12-Shi Attack Bomber Official Navy designation for the first 2 prototypes of the G4M
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 11 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 11 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 12 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M1 Model 12 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22A Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22A 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 22B Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2 Model 22B 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24A Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24A 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24B Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24B 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24C Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2a Model 24C 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 24J Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2e Model 24J 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 25 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2b Model 25 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 26 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M2c Model 26 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Attack Bomber Model 34 Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G4M3 Model 34 'Betty'
Navy Type 1 Wingtip Convoy Fighter Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G6M1 long range escort fighter
Navy Type 1 Large Land Trainer Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G6M1-K advanced trainer
Navy Type 1 Transport Official Imperial Japanese Navy Air Force designation for the Mitsubishi G6M1-L2 paratrooper transport

Remarks:

The Betty was the most-built Japanese bomber of the War. It served anywhere on the Japanese fronts, starting in China during the Second Sino-Japanese conflict.
During the summer of 1941 Japan had established a firm hold on air- superiority over China, and in this theatre the score of the Betty was opened. The bombers were able to penetrate deeply into Chinese-held territory with considerable succes.
At the brink of the Pacific War, the Japanese Navy transferred 27 G4M1's to Indo-China to augment the G3M forces stationed there. The succesful attack on the British warships HMS Repulse and HMSPrince of Wales, were mainly on the account of the G3M's, but the G4M's took a share in the victory as well. After that a lot of pre-emptive attacks on Allied air-fields quickly eliminated most of the opposition in the air, gaining air-superiority in the Philippines There the Betty supported Japanese ground forces, and denied naval reinforcements to the beleaguered Allied troops in Southeast Asia. After that the G4M helped in the conquest of the Netherlands East Indies, New Guinea and the Solomons, and quickly after that was active during the attacks on Darwin.
Until now (februari 1942) the G4M had been very succesful, but things started to worsen for the bomber crews when they attacked targets around Port Moresby. Here, there was an increased fighter opposition and more anti-aircraft batteries waiting for them, and the weaknesses started to show. The lack of armor protection, and the fuel tanks which weren't self sealing finally made clear that the Betty could be beaten, and rather easily. Soon the Betty became known as the 'Flying Lighter' by friend and foe, because of their propensity to catch fire. The problem was never really remedied until the G4M3 model. This latest version however was built too late, and never reached the front-line.
The G4M Betty is also known because of an incident that took place on 18 April 1943. During the Solomons campaign Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was shot down over Bougainville by Lockheed P-38 Lightnings while travelling in a G4M1. Some historics claim that the death of the Admiral, which had been amongst others the master mind behind the Pearl Harbor attack, was a severe blow to the Japanese upper command. Indeed, the Admiral was considered to be somewhat of a strategical genius.
During the later stages of the War the Betty was more and more used in a defensive role, which made the extreme ranges unnecessary, and the failure of two of it's destined successors (Nakajima G5N1 Shinzan and Mitsubishi G7M1 Taizan) meant that the G4M had to be further developed beyond the point of it's obsolescense. One of those developments/conversions needs to be mentioned here specifically: the G4M2e Model 24J. This conversion of the G4M2a Model 24B was able to carry the MXY7 Navy Suicide Attacker, also called Ohka. This was a manned aircraft/missile that was designed for a one-way trip against enemy surface vessels and other targets. However, the Ohka was quite heavy, and the G4M2e Model 24J's were slow. They saw limited action, as on 21 March 1945, 16 aircraft taking part in the first Ohka-sortie were shot down before they were able to fly their Ohka to the launching point. I don't know at this moment how many aircraft took off in the first place, however.
The last mission in which the G4M was used was of an entirely different nature. On 19 August 1945 two G4M1's that were painted all white with green crosses flew to Ie-Shima with the Japanese surrender delegation headed by Lieutenant-General Torashiro Kawabe. This meant the official end of the Pacific War and World War 2.

Strengths:

Weaknesses:

 

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© by Frans Bonné, 2000
Last revision: 5/20/01